Science

Is there any material which does not burn in fire?

Fire can be a good servant but a bad master and therefore, we should always be careful while handing fire. Over many years, fire has caused a great deal of damage to the human life and property and therefore, scientists, and fire experts are always working on materials that do not burn in fire and that can be used by people who work under dangerous conditions where they can get trapped under a fire situation and burn themselves. In recent times many people believe that Nomex is one material that does not burn in fire and therefore, many fire fighters and people working in risky situations prefer to have Nomex clothing to keep them safe from fire.

Nomex is one of the famous materials that you can use if you’re heading into a place where you might have to keep yourself safe in the fire. Nomex material is made from flame resistant cotton, and therefore, it is light and works like a miracle. Many fire fighters across the United States and in other different countries have their uniforms made up of Nomex materials, and even their hood is made of Nomex on which they can place their fire fighter’s mask to cover their face from the intense heat in situations when they are entering a building that has caught fire.

Fire

Apart from the fire fighters even race car drivers like Formula One drivers wear Nomex suits to keep themselves safe and secure in case if there is any accident that would toss their vehicle off the race track and catch fire. Most of the Nomex suits available in the market are generally approved by the fire safety agencies of that country, and therefore, you can certainly buy them without thinking about it twice. Nomex material is very close to nylon and therefore, many people mistaken it for nylon but the fibers of Nomex material are coated with phosphonium salt precondensate which protection from intense heat and flash fires.

Most of the Nomex suits available in the market have different price tags on it because Nomex material comes in different thickness and textures, and therefore, you need to research on what kind of Nomex material is good for your safety. However, Nomex AP and Nomex IIIA are considered to be the most common Nomex materials that you can find in the market.

How was the earth created?

The earth is the only known planet having life. It is the third largest planet in the solar system. In comparison to others, our planet is the most comfortable one with abundant water, a magnetic field that protects from the heat and rays of the sun. The earth’s origin was created from the solar nebula. The big bang happened. The collapse of the gas cloud containing gases, dust and the particles condensed which formed the solar system. It continues growing a centimeter every year.

This aggregation has been building up for 100,000 years on the formation of the sun. Many terrestrial forms were created and are known as the different planets. However, one planet that grew in size was the earth. Over the 100 millions of years, the major part of loose debris as well as planetoids had been destroyed by a solar wind. Since almost 5 billions of years, the earth was formed where we reside now. Due to being in a molten state, the earth’s crust could have only lighter masses. The heavier masses dropped below due to earth’s own gravitational force and formed a central mass of earth. There was created a magnetic field. An atmosphere was formed containing helium and hydrogen. This was however, blown off by a solar wind.

Sometime later after 150 millions of years, the earth cooled to a level where there could be life evolved in it. The atmosphere contained several chemical compounds which are not present today as was then. This process also made the earth rich with CO2, Ammonia, Methane and Nitrogen. Further cooling, the earth formed clouds and there were rains. These rains made the great oceans. Land masses also known as the continents floated around for another million years. And the world came to be created.

The origin of life took place. Then seeding of the earth began due to cosmic action. Life forms came into existence and survived many atmospheric changes. Although life was just the pre-historic animals, man soon came into existence by the same cosmic action. The theory is debatable and let us not delve deeper into this. Considering the atmosphere then and now, many changes have taken place with life evolving as humans and with the distinction of man and woman concept and the children. Initially there were the dinosaurs and men and women struggling to survive. Later the these animals disappeared there is no clear cut theory as to what happened while man had advanced in science and was able to live through the difficult times.

What are plastics?

We live in the age of plastics and hence most of the things that we use today are made up of different kinds of plastics. Plastics are synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids. There are many kinds of plastics available that differ because they have different molecular mass.

Plastics are very flexible and therefore, you can mold them into almost any shape that you want. The word plastic which is derived from Greek word plastikos which mean capable of being molded. Plastics have different chemical structure, and therefore, they have different molecular units that separate them from one another.

PlasticsIn other words, plastics are a kind of polymers that are made up of long chain of molecules that are known as monomers. However, plastics are well known for their light weight and molding capabilities due to which they are being preferred to compare to wood and steel which is bulkier in weight. Plastics are easily made in industries and therefore, the prices of plastic goods are comparatively cheaper, which is also one of the reasons that plastics are preferred in the current situation. Plastic goods are also water proof, and they do not have problems, even if you use them in moist conditions and hence they are the best choice.

There are different kinds of plastics that are available in the market. Plastics like ABS, Acrylic, Amino Plastics, Bakelite, Cellulose Plastic, Cellulose Acetate, Cellulose Acetate Butyrate, Copolymer, Epoxy resin, Monomer, Glass reinforced polyester, nylon, Phenol Plastic, Polycarbonate, Polyester, Polymer, and polypropylene are easily available in the market. Most of the modern furniture and technological gadgets are made up from these plastics. However, there are some environmental issues that have been caused because of the over-utilization of plastic items because plastics degrade very slowly and that causes a lot of environmental hazards.

What are optical illusions?

If you think that your eyes can never cheat you then think again because optical illusions are made to cheat your eyes. We all believe in seeing is believing philosophy but optical illusions also known as visual illusion is a phenomenon where the visual image is very different from the actual image. An optical illusion is all about the visual data, which is processed by the eyes and the information is sent to the brain but the brains interpret the data in another way and therefore, we see what the brain interprets for us and not exactly what the eyes are looking at.

As per the research done on optical illusions we normally see what our brains want us to see and therefore, designers who create optical illusions are very clear about that. In some of the research cases, people are invited to lie down on the floor and view the sky with different cloud patterns. In such cases, every individual sees a different object shape in the clouds. This is because the brain collects all the information and stores it and when the individual looks up in the sky the brain looks back into the memory gives out a familiar object that matches with the shape of the cloud. Hence, every individual has a completely different object in their minds. Such games are usually called as mind games because it totally depends on how our brains are reacting at that moment instead of the eyes.

Optical IllusionPhysiological Illusions
There are many kinds of optical illusions like physiological illusions where excessive stimulation of brightness or color is provided to get the optical illusion. However, physiological illusions are just the after images of what we see and therefore, optical illusions like Hermann grid illusion is considered as one of the best examples of it.

Cognitive Illusions
Cognitive illusions are also very popular and some of the most popular cognitive illusions are Penrose Stairs and the Necker Cube which works on the misunderstanding of our mind. The pictures are simple when you look at them but because our mind interprets things like it has seen several times before it takes into consideration the same principle, and we see an optical illusion in front of us. Kanizsa Triangle is also one of the important optical illusions that fall under cognitive illusions because the triangle in the picture never actually exists, but we still see it clearly.

Many optical illusions also make use of the color and shades which can force us to think if the colors are same or different. We have been taught that shadows can change the contrast of the color and therefore, our minds think that way. However, the colors and shades in certain optical illusions never change but since our mind it trained to think that shades can change because of shadows we see a change of color on the screen. In the real world, a mirage is the best example of an optical illusion because it is never there. Similarly, if you look at the rail tracks you will see that they meet somewhere in the distance but the fact is that they always remain parallel to each other.

How many moons does Venus have?

Planet Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Roman Goddess of love and beauty. Situated just before Earth in the solar system, it does not have any moons. The reason behind the absence of moons could be the placement of the planet so close to sun. All the planets coming next to Venus have moons.

Venus is one of the most discussed planets of the solar system. It is of the same size as Earth and comes second in the list of planets. Planet Venus does not have any moons. The probable reason behind the absence of moons can be given to that fact that the planet is closely situated to Sun around which all the planets revolve. Venus does not even have an asteroid, which may be of the size of a moon.

Some scientists are of the opinion that it is the anticlockwise rotation of Venus and its lack of plate tectonics that may be responsible for the absence of moons. This might have made it difficult for any colossal impacts to carve out a moon or throw out any substantially sized chunk far enough into space.

Another interesting reason given by various scientists and researchers is based on certainty that Venus possibly had a number of periods where there it could capture the asteroids orbiting around it.

All the planets in the solar system have moons except Venus. Among all the planets, Jupiter is the one that has maximum number of moons – 63. Besides that Saturn has 47 moons, Uranus has 27, Neptune has 13, Mars has 2 and our planet Earth has one moon.