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What are optical illusions?

If you think that your eyes can never cheat you then think again because optical illusions are made to cheat your eyes. We all believe in seeing is believing philosophy but optical illusions also known as visual illusion is a phenomenon where the visual image is very different from the actual image. An optical illusion is all about the visual data, which is processed by the eyes and the information is sent to the brain but the brains interpret the data in another way and therefore, we see what the brain interprets for us and not exactly what the eyes are looking at.

As per the research done on optical illusions we normally see what our brains want us to see and therefore, designers who create optical illusions are very clear about that. In some of the research cases, people are invited to lie down on the floor and view the sky with different cloud patterns. In such cases, every individual sees a different object shape in the clouds. This is because the brain collects all the information and stores it and when the individual looks up in the sky the brain looks back into the memory gives out a familiar object that matches with the shape of the cloud. Hence, every individual has a completely different object in their minds. Such games are usually called as mind games because it totally depends on how our brains are reacting at that moment instead of the eyes.

Optical IllusionPhysiological Illusions
There are many kinds of optical illusions like physiological illusions where excessive stimulation of brightness or color is provided to get the optical illusion. However, physiological illusions are just the after images of what we see and therefore, optical illusions like Hermann grid illusion is considered as one of the best examples of it.

Cognitive Illusions
Cognitive illusions are also very popular and some of the most popular cognitive illusions are Penrose Stairs and the Necker Cube which works on the misunderstanding of our mind. The pictures are simple when you look at them but because our mind interprets things like it has seen several times before it takes into consideration the same principle, and we see an optical illusion in front of us. Kanizsa Triangle is also one of the important optical illusions that fall under cognitive illusions because the triangle in the picture never actually exists, but we still see it clearly.

Many optical illusions also make use of the color and shades which can force us to think if the colors are same or different. We have been taught that shadows can change the contrast of the color and therefore, our minds think that way. However, the colors and shades in certain optical illusions never change but since our mind it trained to think that shades can change because of shadows we see a change of color on the screen. In the real world, a mirage is the best example of an optical illusion because it is never there. Similarly, if you look at the rail tracks you will see that they meet somewhere in the distance but the fact is that they always remain parallel to each other.

Who invented the television?

There are many differences of opinions which crop up while deciding who invented the television. This is so because there are a number of inventions and discoveries which led to the development of the television.

Early Origins
The pioneering works of Michael Faraday, Joseph Henry, the invention of pantelegraph in 1862 by Abbe Giovanna Caselli and significant works by scientists such as George Carey, Eugene Goldstein, Sheldon Bidwell, Edison and Bell during the latter 1800s cannot be underestimated.

Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, a German national, invented the ‘Nipkow disc’ which was a rotating disc technology capable of transmitting images through cable, way back in 1884. A few decades later, a Scottish inventor named John Logie Baird, developed technology which used arrays of transparent rods to transmit images which could be delivered to and be seen on TV sets.

TelevisionIn 1924, Baird was successful in televising the first pictures of moving objects and in 1925; he successfully transmitted the image of a human face. The year 1926 was to see another milestone with Baird transmitting the first live moving object.

Role of Philo Farnsworth
However, it is the American inventor Philo Farnsworth who is widely credited with developing the first electronic television. Farnsworth successfully transmitted the image of a dollar sign which was double the resolution which Baird was able to achieve.

Role of Werner Flechsig
The German, Werner Flechsig, created the forerunner of the analog signal TV in 1938 which he patented and unveiled at international fairs in 1939. The world’s first monochrome compatible, electronic, color television was developed by RCA Laboratories during1946-1950. In 1948, the Dumont Company started manufacturing TV sets which soon became the standard for other TV sets.

Who invented the internet?

Life without the internet cannot be imagined today but few among us know who invented it. The fact that the World Wide Web and the internet are different also leads to a lot of confusion and controversy.

The internet which basically means a network of computers was first discussed by Leonard Kleinrock in 1961. In his paper, he described a process called packet switching where data packets can travel from one place to another by carrying the address information in the data itself.

JCR Licklider described a world wide network called the Galactic network of computers in 1962.

InternetThe first working long distance computer networks were created by Larry G Roberts in 1965 who also designed something called The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) in 1966, which was the prototype of the modern day Internet.

The Transmission Control Protocol which moves data on the Internet was invented by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in the early 1970s and they are often considered to be the real inventors of the Internet.

Later Developments
Further developments during the 1980s gave the Internet many new features which contributed to its final shaping. In the 1980s, Radia Perlman developed the spanning tree algorithm which allows for efficient bridging between different networks, a necessity for the practicality of large scale networks such as the Internet.

By the early 1980s, ARPANET started to resemble the Internet of today in many ways and TCP became the established standard. Robert Cailliau and Tim Berners-Lee are credited for the invention of the World Wide Web, the most popular application of the Internet. Limitations for commercial Internet traffic were removed in 1991and the Internet took off in a big way after 1995.

How to disable windows messenger?

If you are tired of looking at the windows messenger popping up each time or then you have made a decision of using some other messenger then it is certain that you would wish to disable this application in your computer system. There are a few easy steps which you will have to follow and you will be able to get rid of it soon. Uninstalling it or deleting it is also helpful but then for the time you can just disable it. Following are the steps that you will have to carefully follow.

Click the “Start” menu from your desktop.

When the menu window pops up select the “Run” option.

You will see a small box prompting out at the left corner.

In the box type “services.mcs”

Click “Ok” or then just press the enter key on the key board.

Just a few steps more and this application will be disabled. There would be a “Services” which will pop up.

There you can very well start looking out for the program Windows Messenger.

Once you get this application double click on it with the mouse.

Open the Menu known as the Startup Type

Then choose the Stop option.

After that click “OK” or then just press the enter button present on the key board.

Close the Services window or then you can just press Alt+F4 together on the computer keyboard.

These are 12 simple steps that you can very well use when you wish to disable the windows messenger on your computer system.

How to Speed up Windows XP?

Ignorance and lack of maintenance can affect the performance of Windows XP operating system. As you maintain the hardware, similarly maintaining software and system is also important, lack of which slows down the system and can cause big time troubles too like crashing or slower performance.

There are many ways you can undertake to speed up Windows XP and maintain its performance. Cleaning up the computer, defragmentation, setting up page file and priorities and deleting unwanted programs is a good way of speeding up Windows XP.

Formatting of the computer is a good way of speeding up Windows XP. Before you do this, make sure you take a back up of all the important files because while formatting all files in that partition will be deleted. Formatting can both be done at home or by taking it to hardware/software professional.

Defragmentation is among the best ways of protecting the speed of Windows XP. Click on the start button for this process. Now place the cursor on all programs. Choose accessories. Then click on system tools. Now choose the drive and opt for ‘defragment’ option. The defragmentation will start taking place. This is a simple method that can be done easily at home.

Updating the operating system Windows will also speed up its functioning. Device drivers must too be updated from time to time. This will ensure that your system works fast. Virtual memory optimization also leads to fast performing Windows XP. Press the windows icon key and pause break key simultaneously on your keyboard. This will open by the system properties box. Click on the tab ‘advanced’ and then make sure ‘Processor’ and ‘Memory Usage’ section have ‘programs’ selected under them. Whichever drive the page file is present must be selected. ‘No paging file’ option must now be chosen and set. This will speed up Windows XP.

Go to the start button and click on ‘run’. Type the words ‘control user passwords’ in the box. Now you must go to the option ‘change the way users log on or off’. Here you will see an option saying ‘use fast user switching’. You must deselect this option and click on ‘apply’. This is again a great way of speeding up Windows XP.

Turning off the effects might also help in boosting Windows XP processing speed. Again press windows icon key and pause break simultaneously. Systems property box would open. Go to the ‘advanced’ tab and choose the performance option. Now ‘visual effects’ box will have ‘adjust for best performance’ option. Choose it and apply it. The action will be applied immediately.

Updating windows and deleting all the unneeded programs is considered one of the most efficient ways of boosting up Windows performance. If all of this does not help, further disabling of screensaver, wallpapers, compression and indexing and sounds can be done. By turning off System restore too Windows XP processing speed can be enhanced.

Unwanted programs removal must be among your first priorities. Those fonts which are not regularly used might be deleted too. Disabling unneeded services will help a great deal.
For an enhanced and faster performing Windows XP, system diagnoses and performing above mentioned functions proves to be useful.