Internet

Who invented the internet?

Life without the internet cannot be imagined today but few among us know who invented it. The fact that the World Wide Web and the internet are different also leads to a lot of confusion and controversy.

Origins
The internet which basically means a network of computers was first discussed by Leonard Kleinrock in 1961. In his paper, he described a process called packet switching where data packets can travel from one place to another by carrying the address information in the data itself.

JCR Licklider described a world wide network called the Galactic network of computers in 1962.

InternetThe first working long distance computer networks were created by Larry G Roberts in 1965 who also designed something called The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) in 1966, which was the prototype of the modern day Internet.

The Transmission Control Protocol which moves data on the Internet was invented by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in the early 1970s and they are often considered to be the real inventors of the Internet.

Later Developments
Further developments during the 1980s gave the Internet many new features which contributed to its final shaping. In the 1980s, Radia Perlman developed the spanning tree algorithm which allows for efficient bridging between different networks, a necessity for the practicality of large scale networks such as the Internet.

By the early 1980s, ARPANET started to resemble the Internet of today in many ways and TCP became the established standard. Robert Cailliau and Tim Berners-Lee are credited for the invention of the World Wide Web, the most popular application of the Internet. Limitations for commercial Internet traffic were removed in 1991and the Internet took off in a big way after 1995.

How does e-mail work?

E-mail or electronic mail, is the exchange of all digitalized messages through the various networks of computer or the internet. It is on the basis of the model of store and forward, where the server receives, sends, deliver and then store the messages. The client is a vital element of an e-mail procedure and this can be on the basis of any program. Irrespective of the program, the messages to be sent as an e-mail are composed and displayed by the client. Originally, the transmission of e-mails was done directly, which is no longer done today.

E-mailSending an e-mail
Whilst sending an e-mail, there is the occurrence of messages being disassembled and sent in the form of a text file. Along with the text file, there are other components and attachments that are also sent. All these are then uploaded on the e-mail server, which functions as the host of this e-mailing procedure. After this, the e-mail is then transmitted over the internet that to the server, hosting the domain name of the email address concerning the recipient. Then the server of the recipient will detect the address and message is downloaded by the client of E-Mail.

Receiving an e-mail
Once the e-mailed message is disseminated into several components and elements, it is then reassembled by the e-mail’s recipient. The client has all the knowledge about the assembling of the message components and this because of the additional header on the emailed message, called MIME. Once you get an email message, it is then stored on the server of the account of the email, which remains in the inbox till it is checked and the information is downloaded. When the message is opened, the MIME or the header is read by the client and then the message is assembled as per the directions of the header. This is how the entire concept of e-mail functions.

How does wireless internet work?

Wireless internet is coined from the feature of using a wireless transmission to send and receive data through the Internet as opposed to the use of cable for transmission. A wireless network can be created at office or home or any specific location in any place worldwide.

Types
Point Distribution: This type of wireless internet usually indulges in using bands which are unlicensed in comparison to ones which have the wired telephone infrastructure. In this case there are towers which transmit the Internet signal to a range which is visible. Usually this range is between four to six miles. They can both transmit as well as pick up over similar frequency.

InternetMesh Wireless Internet: In this type of network, one has gateway or node that has an internet access which is wired. It utilizes radio frequencies in order to share the Internet on a wireless mode. Moreover it can indulge in hopping several nodes, and thus the extension of the original node is possible.

Satellite Wireless Internet: This is a network that uses the satellites in geosynchronous orbit. This essentially means that they are positioned in a particular place in the sky in relation to a point on Earth. Thus many locations worldwide can utilize the same Internet connection.

Wireless Networking
Moreover, a wireless hot spot can be created in a public area where one can use wireless internet within a range of three hundred to six hundred feet. There are many such hot spots in restaurants, airports and other retail locations. Many of these locations charge a basic hourly fee. In fact there are many cities which have multiple access points with wi-fi. Thus in these case the internet connectivity could be from a source like the satellite or a wired connection with the DSL or fiber optic.
In case one wants to set up a wireless network in their house or office, one needs a wireless router. This router would be connected to the Internet source. The router usually has an inbuilt antennae that helps to broadcast the Internet signal throughout one’s home or office In this case, any instrument which is wireless enabled would be able to catch the internet signal and work efficiently.

How does Skype work?

Skype offers you a great opportunity to talk to anyone, in any corner of the world using versatile technology. All you have to do is create an account on Skype, get a computer and internet connection and get started. Moreover, the service of talking from one computer to another is absolutely free. You can enjoy the benefits of seeing each other via modes of video conferencing also. However, if you want to make a call to any phone from your computer, you require Skype Credit which is available at very competitive prices as compared to the charges for other phones. Skype is indeed one of the best options for International Dialing. The best part is that you can hear voice without any interruptions or disturbances.

SkypeAs more and more people are using the broadband you don’t need a distinct physical connection to communicate with your friends and relatives across the world. Here’s how you can get started-

Get a Skype ID
The first step to talking on Skype is to get a Skype ID. Sign up with the website and get your unique number, which is associated to customizable username. The quick connection allows you to talk to telephone numbers or PC to PC, without any disturbances. The ID given by Skype is recognized by landline telephones and by mobile phones as well.

Connect
For connecting to Skype, you need an internet connection. Having the same helps you connect with landline telephones along with digital Skype members. Skype uses the VoIP or Voice over IP technology. This specific and patent proprietorship of VoIP helps them to create a unique system. Skype also has the technology of distributing bandwidth needs among different users. Hence, the services offered by Skype are free. However, to make call to cell phones or landlines you may have to pay nominal charges.

SkypeOut
Apart from the unique VoIP service, Skype also has a premium service called SkypeOut service that is accepted by conventional telephone lines. Using this service you can call up any landline of your choice or other registered members for a nominal amount.

How does Paypal work?

Paypal is an online option for transferring money. You can send and receive money, in different currencies, via the web. There is a nominal charge for the services offered, which is almost negligible, compared to the facilities provided. This is the most widely used money transfer system which is prevalent in 190 countries. The transfers are instant. You can directly transfer money be E Cheque, etc. too.

How to start
Sign up to create a PayPal account to avail money transfer facilities. You need an email address, bank account details, along with a credit or debit card number. You can fund the PayPal balance through either of the above options. Notifications are sent to recipients via an email when they receive or send payments.

Paypal LogoTo make a purchase
When making a purchase you have to choose Paypal as a payment mode on the merchant website. Then select the option of funding the purchase via a credit card or bank account or any other source. Funds get transferred to your account securely and the money gets deposited with the seller or merchant website.

Making a PayPal payment
The buyer has to choose Paypal for the payment option on a given website. Select the source of payment, which can be bank account, credit card or another source. The money gets deposited to the account you hold in Paypal. You can then transfer this money to spend online or to send a payment to anyone’s PayPal account.

Benefits of Paypal
• Easier payment options
• No hassles of approaching banks for separate credit cards
• No need to disclose any bank details online, which is unsafe due to net thefts
• Safe and secure mean of transfer
• Instant transfer
• Trusted and accepted worldwide in 190 countries
• Accepted by major merchant websites and also preferred on sites like eBay
• No information is given to third parties
• More than 50 million loyal customers use it
• Monitored by experienced fraud prevention team
• Sellers are not disclosed any bank account details of buyers.
• Very nominal fees as compared to other options.