Astronomy

How was the earth created?

The earth is the only known planet having life. It is the third largest planet in the solar system. In comparison to others, our planet is the most comfortable one with abundant water, a magnetic field that protects from the heat and rays of the sun. The earth’s origin was created from the solar nebula. The big bang happened. The collapse of the gas cloud containing gases, dust and the particles condensed which formed the solar system. It continues growing a centimeter every year.

This aggregation has been building up for 100,000 years on the formation of the sun. Many terrestrial forms were created and are known as the different planets. However, one planet that grew in size was the earth. Over the 100 millions of years, the major part of loose debris as well as planetoids had been destroyed by a solar wind. Since almost 5 billions of years, the earth was formed where we reside now. Due to being in a molten state, the earth’s crust could have only lighter masses. The heavier masses dropped below due to earth’s own gravitational force and formed a central mass of earth. There was created a magnetic field. An atmosphere was formed containing helium and hydrogen. This was however, blown off by a solar wind.

Sometime later after 150 millions of years, the earth cooled to a level where there could be life evolved in it. The atmosphere contained several chemical compounds which are not present today as was then. This process also made the earth rich with CO2, Ammonia, Methane and Nitrogen. Further cooling, the earth formed clouds and there were rains. These rains made the great oceans. Land masses also known as the continents floated around for another million years. And the world came to be created.

The origin of life took place. Then seeding of the earth began due to cosmic action. Life forms came into existence and survived many atmospheric changes. Although life was just the pre-historic animals, man soon came into existence by the same cosmic action. The theory is debatable and let us not delve deeper into this. Considering the atmosphere then and now, many changes have taken place with life evolving as humans and with the distinction of man and woman concept and the children. Initially there were the dinosaurs and men and women struggling to survive. Later the these animals disappeared there is no clear cut theory as to what happened while man had advanced in science and was able to live through the difficult times.

How many moons does Venus have?

Planet Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Roman Goddess of love and beauty. Situated just before Earth in the solar system, it does not have any moons. The reason behind the absence of moons could be the placement of the planet so close to sun. All the planets coming next to Venus have moons.

Venus is one of the most discussed planets of the solar system. It is of the same size as Earth and comes second in the list of planets. Planet Venus does not have any moons. The probable reason behind the absence of moons can be given to that fact that the planet is closely situated to Sun around which all the planets revolve. Venus does not even have an asteroid, which may be of the size of a moon.

Some scientists are of the opinion that it is the anticlockwise rotation of Venus and its lack of plate tectonics that may be responsible for the absence of moons. This might have made it difficult for any colossal impacts to carve out a moon or throw out any substantially sized chunk far enough into space.

Another interesting reason given by various scientists and researchers is based on certainty that Venus possibly had a number of periods where there it could capture the asteroids orbiting around it.

All the planets in the solar system have moons except Venus. Among all the planets, Jupiter is the one that has maximum number of moons – 63. Besides that Saturn has 47 moons, Uranus has 27, Neptune has 13, Mars has 2 and our planet Earth has one moon.

How much energy does the sun generate?

The sun generates nearly 386 billion million gigawatts, most of which is electromagnetic radiation. In comparison, a nuclear reactor makes only one gigawat of energy. Only a fraction of this radiant energy reaches the Earth and is responsible for all life.

The Sun produces heat and light through an unceasing series of nuclear reactions. This process of generation of sun’s energy is termed as nuclear fusion. Fusion of the atoms in the Sun releases immense energy and other primary particles. The Sun performs a kind of nuclear reaction to produce its energy by crushing the hydrogen atoms together that gives out immense pressure, light and heat.

The sun comprises mainly of Hydrogen. The Hydrogen atoms are bound together with gravitational pull of the Sun. This pull creates a sort of tension in the center of the sun where the temperature and pressure is the highest. The nuclear reaction that occurs in the sun involves four protons, which together make the nucleus of one atom of Helium. The Resultant helium comprises of two neutrons and two protons. The energy generated by the fusion reaction is responsible for the massive energy emanating from the Sun.

The energy of the Sun is said to be decreasing as the light elements of the sun have been fused together, and the sun is left with the heavier, non-fusible materials. The sun will die out and it will pull with its gravity every matter in the universe to the range of Mars’ orbit.

Sunspot activity and solar flares can make slight variations in the energy of the sun. These cramp the consistency of the energy of the sun. The earth gets 174 petawatts of the sun’s energy from which 30 per cent is reflected back into the universe. The rest is absorbed by the land, ocean, atmosphere, and the living beings on Earth. The total absorbed energy of the Sun in Earth is 3850000 EJ every year.

How many satellites are orbiting the earth?

The satellites in the space are tracked down by the Space Surveillance Network of United States. It has tracked approximate number of currently 3,000 satellites in the orbit around the Earth. These satellites are the ones which are in proper working condition and in the correct locations on the orbits.

Satellites from countries
Satellites have a lifespan of about five to twenty years. At present the major powers of the world have close to 1000 satellites each with countries like USA sending close to 1000 satellites and Russia with 1400 satellites. The largest satellite in the earth’s orbit is the International Space Station. There are other satellites called nano-satellites, which have a maximum size of 10 cm orbiting the Earth.

SSN
The SSN was launched with the sole purpose of keeping a note on the number of satellites revolving in the Earth’s orbit. It was launched along with the Sputnik by Soviet Union in the year 1957.

Important Satellites
Satellites have eased down a number of things. Of the 3000 satellites circling around the earth, ten of them are of great importance. These satellites have varied functions. Some play an important role for astronomical and communication purposes and some are exclusively for a check on the weather and research. The Hubble Space Telescope has been an important part in solving the mysteries of space. The International Space Station stands as a congregation of all the countries in the world while the LANDSAT- 7 has been crucial for charting out maps of Earth from space. Google maps have been using the images from this satellite for its mapping application. The other satellites have been the key to research and for forecasts on the weather conditions throughout the world.

Moon
Moon, the natural satellite of the earth is responsible for the tides on the planet along with changes in seasons and eclipses, is among the most important satellite for earth.

How long will the universe last?

According to the recently conducted studies, it has been estimated that the universe will not end for an extremely long time. It is believed that the universe is still expanding because of the initial forces of the big bang theory. However, the actual answer to this question really relies on the availability of the physical matter that exists in the universe.

The opinion of the scientists and researchers vary on the subject of universe. While some believe the world might end soon, others feel that the big bang theory is continuing and if there is sufficient physical matter left in universe, it will continue to grow and expand for something over millions of years.

The scientists have conducted studies that tell that if there is sufficient matter available in the universe, the forces of gravity will attract each bit of the matter and eventually it will stop the outward expansion of space. When this stage arises, the physical matter will start to collide instead of expanding because of the gravitational pull and there will be a point in time when the universe will fall inwards upon itself. Some scientists have even names this phenomenon of universe collapse as the ‘big crunch’.

On the other hand, the contemporary cosmetologists believe that the universe will continue to last for a long time, something like googleplex years, which is considered a very large number comprising of thousands of zeroes.

The current signs are indicating that the universe expansion is occurring at an accelerated rate. It is still not known for how long this expansion will last, whether it will stabilize and when the decline will start.

The real answer of the question is still unknown. Scientists and researchers are continuously conducting researches and experiments but so far, they have not been able to reach a single consensus.