Miscellaneous

Was the Mediterranean sea ever dry?

Water bodies have always made an impact on the life of human beings, and therefore, you see that most of the top cities lie around famous oceans, seas, lakes and rivers that provide these places with water, which is important for daily life activities and existence. If you normally connect water bodies with beauty and romanticism then you should look out for Mediterranean Sea, which is considered to be one of the most beautiful water bodies in the world. However, it has been now proven that this beautiful water body once went completely dry.

Although it does sound completely unbelievable that huge water body like Mediterranean Sea can go dry but scientists and many explorers across the world have now concrete evidence that Mediterranean Sea once had evaporated because of various climatic and natural conditions that were created. One of the main theories that provide concrete evidence about this is that in 1968 many geologists were carrying out seismic surveys to understand more about the earth crust and its movements. However, when they started digging the Mediterranean Sea floor, they found samples of arroyo gravel, rock salt, gypsum and anhydrite, which are only found on land and not in water. The layer of rock found under the sea floor was more than three kilometers thick, and it provided clear evidence that somewhere in history Mediterranean Sea floor went dry and was exposed completely.

Mediterranean Sea

It is also believed that more than five million years ago the Strait of Gibraltar might have closed down and therefore, there was no inflow of water in the Mediterranean Sea. Hence, the water level in the Mediterranean Sea remained the same. However, with the passing of time this water body began to evaporate and slowly over a period of thousand-year Mediterranean Sea floors became visible. Many scientists even believe that glaciations could also be one of the main reasons for the drying of the Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, there are some experts who believe that the increasing atmospheric pressure could have led to increase in temperatures, which would have dried up the Mediterranean Sea faster than it normally should.

How to know if someone is lying?

It is human tendency to lie in order to escape difficult situations if they can be avoided. People lie to get a quick escape from tight circumstances, to cover up for mistakes committed by themselves or someone else, or sometimes just as an excuse for delaying something unimportant in the immediate future. If you have to take care of children or supervise a group of people on a job, then sometimes it becomes really essential for you to know when a person is lying. Here are a few tips which will help you to identify if someone’s not telling you the truth.

Body language is the biggest tell tale sign, so learn to interpret it. If a person acts nervous, looks uncomfortable and fidgety while talking or refuses to make eye contact with you during the conversation, then he is definitely lying about what he is telling you. All these signs are clear indications that the person is not confident of what he is telling you. If a person is inconsistent with the facts he gives you, then it is also a probable case of lying. Say, he mixes up different stories or details on different days, or tells you about different time frames when you ask him about an incident on separate days, then you can correctly deduce that whatever he is telling you did not actually happen.

Steadfastly resisting answering any direct questions by citing illogical or irrelevant reasons is also a case of lying. Most probably he is trying to hide something and doesn’t want to tell you about it. If it is evident that punishment will be granted if the answers are given, then it is all the more probable that he will refuse to answer and opt for extreme defensiveness. When a deceitful person is afraid of being discovered, he sometimes puts blame on others instead of owning up himself. If you are being accused of lying or improper behavior, then it is very likely that the one who is accusing you is actually projecting his own real image on to you. Sufficient evidences and proofs against him and valid alibis are enough to make it clear who is the real liar.

Intuition is a great gift of the human mind. Sometimes, you can just feel it in your gut when someone is lying to you. But it doesn’t mean you take action then and there. Instead of jumping to conclusions, first try to gather some evidence to lend credibility to your hunch. A more blunt approach which also works sometimes is to directly ask the person if he has lied to you. Chances are that if he is a conscientious person, he will feel bad about being caught lying and will own up.

These are a few methods to know when someone is lying. What you should keep in mind is that you must listen and understand a person’s reasons for lying to you. What if the lies were intended to prevent any emotional trouble to you? What if the liar was afraid of upsetting you with the truth and found it better to lie? If you are someone who is easily troubled with inconvenient truths, you might end up listening lies from people who were merely concerned about keeping you happy. There is no surety that you might be able to catch a liar or a lie even lie detector tests fail in their purposes.

How does recycling affect the environment?

Recycling can be defined as an act of reusing used materials or products by processing them. This helps our environment by reducing the burden on natural resources which are getting depleted significantly. A common example of recyclable items today is paper, which is then converted to new paper products. Glass, tin, wood, etc. are some of the other items that can be recycled. Recycling is very good for the environment in many ways. Some of these include:

Lowers landfill amount
Too much landfill means a huge problem for mankind and other animal species. Non-biodegradable products accumulated for a long period means harmful and toxic gases. Recycling prevents the same.

Recycle SymbolReduces consumption of energy
Natural resources are drying out. This applies for oil, forests, metals, mines, etc. Hence, recycling helps by reusing the resource once again, instead of digging into mother earth for more. It requires lower energy to use recycled wood as it would take many years for a plant to become a full-grown tree.

Reduces pollution
As landfills lead to harmful emission of gases and other toxic wastes they pollute the environment. If you ever pass a landfill during humid and warm summer months you would hate the stench caused due to toxic gases. Recycling helps in reducing the landfill deposits and making the world a better place to live.

Cost-effective
Recycled goods cost less compared to regular items. You can also reduce other costs by recycling methods at home. For instance, use natural rotten veggies or your pet pee can actually be a good fertilizer for the garden. Recycle the grass and leaves to create a compost of them.

It is time to act now. Recycling can help your children breathe fresh air and lead a pollution free life. Ask others to join this quest for recycling and adopt environmental friendly habits.

How tall can skyscrapers be?

This question is running down the minds of many engineers and architects that how tall can the skyscrapers be? Many speculations have been made on this but there is no specific answer to this query. Tallest skyscraper in the world is of 528 storeys which was built in Chicago. There are many factors on which the height of the skyscrapers depends. Many people feel that structural materials are the prime factor for deciding their heights but it is not so. You may find it surprising but the skyscraper is light for its size. Strong steel can support structures of 10 km while advanced composites can be used for supporting structures of 100 km. However, three most important factors due to which the height of skyscrapers might get affected are wind, budget and elevators.

It is important to understand that the wind calms down above the altitude of around 12 km. air also gets thinner at higher altitudes. At higher altitudes, air is around 4 times thinner as compared to the density at sea level. If skyscrapers are to be built above 195 m in height, then specially designed features will be required. Huge counterweights made up of metal will be required to redistribute the weight to the center of building. Improvised concrete which has a good load bearing capacity must be used for building skyscrapers.

Elevator is also a major factor which needs consideration while talking about height of the skyscrapers. If the building is very tall, more people will stay there and elevators will also be used frequently. More space will also be required for these elevators. In order to overcome this problem, double decked elevators must be used and use of sky lobbies should be made as intermediary points for the travelers. If the buildings are very tall extending to 6,500 feet multi-leveled elevators might be employed.

How to drill a hole in glass?

Any size of hole can be drilled in glass but you only need to have a proper drill bit. In case you want to drill smaller hole that is half inch you can consider diamond drill bit which has a cylindrical bit or a ball shaped bit. If you want to drill a bigger hole which is more than half inch diameter you can consider having diamond core bit. The hole when drilled is smooth and it would not require any burnishing.

Here are a few steps that you need to follow for drilling a hole in glass:

Step 1: Firstly wear glasses for safety so that your eyes are protected from the tiny glass particles. You can also wear gloves if you want.

Step 2: You need to place the glass on the surface that is flat and strong. This gives a support during the drilling process.

Step 3: Where you want to drill a hole in glass mark that portion. For avoiding the breakage of the glass it is important that you leave one inch margin near the perimeter.

Step 4: Insert the diamond bit into the drill, but take care that you have taken diamond bit that is smaller than needed, this will help in preventing the cracking of the glass at the time you are drilling.

Step 5: Add some lubricant to the drill bit. First you need to drill with light pressure until halfway through the glass and then increase the speed but slowly and if required add lubricant.

Step 6: Now you need to turn the glass for drilling on the other side.

Step 7: Raise the size of the diamond drill bit till the hole reaches the proper size that you want. Keep continuing the drilling process with less pressure and less RPM and apply lubricant if required.