Human Body

How many bones are there in the human body?

Bones are an important part of the human body. They give support, shape and structure to the body and perform special functions to allow movement. At birth, the body of a child has about 350 bones. As the body grows and reaches adulthood, a number of bones fuse together giving 206 bones in the adult human body.

An infant may have about 300 to 350 bones in the body but as the body develops, a number of bones fuse together leaving only 206 important bones in the adult body. Each bone performs a special role in the body and supports the movement and functions of the body parts.

The distribution of the 206 bones in the body is as follows:

• 28 bones in the skull (facial bones, ear bones and cranium)

• The horseshoe shaped hyoid bone for the neck

• 26 bones in the vertebraes (neck, thorax, sacrum, etc)

• More than 24 bones comprising of the ribs and the shoulder girdle including sternum and breastbone.

• Single pelvic girdle

• 30 bones in the arms and legs

• A few partial bones about 8 to 18 that help in making and moving the joints.

The shortest bone in the body is the stirrup, which is present in the ear. It is not more than an inch long but is important in carrying the sound from the eardrums to the inner ear. The largest bone is known as the femur, which extends from the hip to the knee. The length of the femur entirely depends on the height of the individual. The maximum number of bones is found in the arms and legs.

Human body is full of surprises. Some bones are fused together while others work independently. Some help in movement while other gives the structure. Each part is essential for the overall growth, development, and efficient function of the individual.

What are pressure points?

Human body is made up of different organs and there are different points inside our body that can be used to provide relief or to cause pain. These points are normally termed as pressure points.

The use of pressure points is more common in martial arts where martial artists make use and hit their opponents on pressure points to immobilize them for few seconds or minutes. However, the use of pressure points is also very common to heal different body problems and therefore, herbal medicine experts and those who are involved in various massage techniques also make use of these pressure points. The same pressure points are being used when you go for acupressure therapies.

The idea of pressure points dates back to the 17th century when many Japanese martial art practitioners used these pressure points to attack their enemy and defend themselves. Many new medication techniques like zone therapy is also based on pressure points, and the practitioner applies pressure to the right pressure points through his fingers or elbows to ensure that the point is stimulated and the energy is redirected in the right path.

At times special instruments are also being used to stimulate these pressure points. These pressure points can help you get rid of problems like stress and hypertension and can help to improve the blood circulation and energy flow inside the body.

There are more than hundred pressure points inside our body. However, ancient Chinese text sources have mentioned that there are more than thousand pressure points inside our body that can help in repairing and breaking the body.

What are potassium channels?

We all require some kind of energy that will help us keep going for the entire day while we are working in our offices and even at home. However, how does our body pass on this energy from one part of the body to another? Of course, there are millions of cells that are working inside our body at all the time but how to do these cells pass on the energy from one cell to another? Potassium channels are considered as the most common ion channel that is found in all types of living organisms. These potassium channels cover major portions of cell membrane and help in passing on the ions from one cell to another that controls different cell functions.

With the help of potassium channels, potassium ions can move in and out of the cell freely and create a potassium gradient that assists in action potential of the cell. Hence, potassium channels pass on potassium ions between different cells and even between extracellular spaces to regulate different biological functions. These potassium channels also help in controlling different cellular processes like secretion of hormones.

Potassium channels are generally divided into four major classes, and they are:
Calcium activated potassium channel – As the name suggests, these potassium channels only open up when there is a presence of calcium ions.

Inwardly rectifying potassium channel – These potassium channels provide positive charge into the cell.

Tandem pore domain potassium channel – These kinds of potassium channels are also known as leak channels, and they allow potassium ions enter the membrane for high basal activation.

Voltage gated potassium channel – These potassium channels open and close as per the changes that happen in transmembrane voltage.

Potassium channels are mainly present in the cardiac rhythm regulation and therefore, potassium channel blocker medication is normally used to restore a normal rhythm if there is anything abnormal about the heart rhythm rate.

How does the nose detect smell?

Smell is a very important function of the human body. Essentially each thing which has a good odor or a bad one gives off certain molecules which come to one’s nose. Usually these molecules are very light and they evaporate easily in to one’s nose. It is through the sense of smell that one can differentiate between a good, bad or pungent smell. One would be surprised to know that human beings can distinguish 10, 000 and more smells.

Description of the nose
The composition of a nose is of two bones which form a bridge. A cartilage which takes the form of a wall separates the nose into two parts which are called nasal cavities. There is a thin membrane which is positioned at the extreme end of the nasal cavities called mucous membrane. The nose is moist by a fluid secretion from the mucous membrane.

NoseMechanism
At the end of the nasal cavities are two olfactory nerves. These nerves have certain cells called receptors. The area of these cells is barely 250 square millimeters. These olfactory receptors are numerous and each are encoded uniquely a separate gene and thus can recognize different smells. However in the event of a damage of any DNA which misses a gene, one might not be able to smell a particular odorant. The receptors are widely divided in seven broad categories of burning, flowers, pungent, fruits, alcohol, peppermint and musky.

In case of some molecules coming out of a particular thing emitting smell, some electric impulses might be generated by the nerves and receptors. These electric smells immediately traverse the smell center of the brain which sends feedback that enables one to detect the smell. In case if one is suffering from a cold, usually one loses the sense of smell since the sensitive cells or the receptors are all covered.

How does the heart work?

The heart is a vital organ. It is essentially a muscle which helps in distribution and circulation of blood to the entire body. It consists of arteries, veins, and capillaries which are the vessels which distribute the blood all over the body. The heart is divided into four parts. The two which are placed on the top are known as the left and right atria while the other two chambers are known as the right and left ventricles. The above mentioned chambers are the origins of where blood vessels lead in and out from essentially.

Mechanism of blood circulation
The right and left side chambers of the heart work in conjunction. Essentially the right side chambers pumps blood into the lungs whereas the left side chambers pumps the blood into the tissues and the organs of the entire body.

HeartThe right side of the heart gives entry to deoxygenated blood though the superior and inferior vena cava which helps it to flow into the right atrium. Eventually after passing the tricuspid valve and right ventricle, the blood is pumped into the lungs by the pulmonary valve. The lungs remove the carbon dioxide from the blood and oxygenate it.

On the other hand the left side of the heart , with the help of the pulmonary vein takes the oxygen rich blood to the left atrium and then into the left ventricle from the lungs. Lastly, the aortic valve transports it to the aorta, which is the blood vessel that sends the oxygen rich blood to all the organs of the body. This cycle must take place to sustain the life of a human being.

Mechanism of the heart beat
The ventricles and the atria work in conjunction by relaxing and contraction on an alternative basis to pump blood in one’s heart. Electrical impulses are created which triggers the heartbeat that travels through a unique pathway in the heart

On an overall basis, a healthy heart is one which keeps the body full of fresh blood, nutrients hence its effective functioning is important for ones healthy living.